If we disregard the specific values loaded from and pushed to the stack, then the only thing the routine does is perform the following operation on the operand stack pointer: It turns out that the rest of the code continues to work in the attacker's favor. Once we execute the "blend" instruction which increases "op_sp" beyond the end of "op_stk", another iteration of the interpreter loop takes place, which starts with the following lines of code: That's right at the beginning of each instruction's execution, the function checks that "op_sp" is not below the operand stack array, but at the same time doesn't verify the upper boundary, making it possible for the Charstring to continue normal execution with an inconsistent state of the interpreter (an out-of-bounds stack pointer).
The impact of the vulnerability in the context of ATMFD. DLL can be easily illustrated by using a short stream of four Charstring instructions, which perform the following actions: Trigger an "exchange" operation, swapping the two topmost operand stack entries, which in this case are the stack frame pointer (saved EBP) and the return address.
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